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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                鉛酸蓄電池基本構造

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2015-08-19   |  來源:煒業通科技

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                1、基本構造:

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                正負極板(1)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                鉛酸蓄電池的極板,依構造和活性物質化成方法,可分為四類:涂膏式極板、管式極板,化成式極板,半化成式極板。
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ●涂膏式極板(涂漿式極板)由板柵和活性物質構成的。
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ●板柵的作用為支撐活性物質和傳導電流、使電流分布均勻。
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ●板柵的材料一般采用鉛銻合金,免維護電池采用鉛鈣合金。
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ●正極活性物質主要成分為二氧化鉛,負極活性物質主要成分為絨狀鉛。

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                隔板(2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ●電池用隔板是有微孔橡膠、顏料玻璃纖維等材料制成的,它的主要作用是:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ■防止正負極板短路。
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ■使電解液中正負離子順利通過。
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ■阻緩正負極板活性物質的脫落,防止正負極板因震動而損傷。
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ●因此要求隔板要有孔率高,孔徑小,耐酸,不分泌有害雜質,有一定強度,在電解液中電阻小,具有化學穩定性的特點。
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                電解液(3)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ●電解液是蓄電池'>蓄電池的重要組成部分,它的作用是傳導電流和參加電化學反應。
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ●電解液是由濃硫酸和凈化水(往離子水)配制而成的,電解液的純度和密度對電池容量和壽命有重要影響。
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ●汽車用鉛酸蓄電池采用電解液密度為1.280±0.005g/cm3(25℃)稀硫酸。
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                電池殼、蓋(4)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ●電池殼、蓋是裝正、負極板和電解液的容器,一般由塑料和橡膠材料制成。
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                排氣栓(5)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ●一般由塑料材料制成,對電池起密封作用,阻止空氣進進,防止極板氧化。同時可以將充電時電池內產生的氣體排出電池,避免電池產生危險。
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ●使用前:必須將排氣栓上的盲孔用鐵絲刺穿,以保證氣體溢出通暢。
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                其它:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                蓄電池除上述部件外,還有鏈條(6)、極柱(7)、鞍子(8)、液面指示器等零部件。

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 
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